The fact that the main architects of racism are found in high places as well as inordinately accrue the advantages in economic wealth and political power from this deeply and historically embedded system of super exploitation and oppression shouldn’t be lost sight of.

But neither should we doubt or dismiss the material and psychological advantages that white workers derive from racism as a material practice in nearly every area of social life, including their sense of superiority and earned privilege. It’s this duality that accounts for the durability of racist thinking and actions, not to mention constitutes the force field on which cross class, white supremacist political coalitions have rested, not least the Trump led white nationalist authoritarian one at the current moment.

Racist ideology is powerful and pervasive, for sure, but without its material reflection in every day life it would be difficult to sustain over the long run.